Chapter II. They may also be divided into two classes, 1 pure chemicals, 2 galenicals. The pure chemicals are now prepared by neither pharmacist nor physician and in consequence the latter ordinarily needs to know nothing more about the methods of their preparation than what he has acquired as a student of chemistry. In regard to the methods of galenical pharmacy he must be better informed, as a knowledge of some of the methods and terms are essential in order that he may write prescriptions intelligently. In consequence some of the terms and methods are defined below. Fixed Oils e.
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You are on page 1of 7 Search inside document Extractions and Galenical Preparations Introduction and Definition: Medicines prepared according to the formulae of Galen are referred to as Galenical prepararations. Galen was a Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance between 4th and 17th Pharmaceutical preparations are divided into: 1. Galenical preparations 2. Non-Galenical preparations Extraction involves the separation of medicinally active portions of plant or animal tissues from the inactive components through the use of selective solvents The extracted preparation are known as Galenicals.
It is basically a medicinal preparation composed mainly of herbal or vegetable matter. It is prepared by extraction of crude vegetable drugs active principles with suitable solvent s. The term is now used to denote standard preparations containing one or more active constituents of a plant and made by a process that leaves the inert and other undesirable constituents of the plant un-dissolved.
Nomenclature: Galenicals: Owing to Galen who discovered it. Menstrum: Solvent used for extraction ex. Choice of menstrum : The ideal solvent for a certain pharmacologically active constituent should: Be highly selective for the compound to be extracted. Have a high capacity for extraction. Not react with the extracted compound or with other compounds in the plant material.
Have a low price. Be harmless to man and to the environment. Be completely volatile. Originally the ingredients were left soaking in hot water and then drained. Later, it was discovered that it was more effective if the ingredients were suspended near the surface of the water, as that way more of the drugs were extracted, this discovery led to the development of the infusion pot. B- At the end of infusion time, the drug can be lifted out, leaving clear liquid which can be strained quickly.
Very fine powders should be avoided due to difficulty of separation from the infusion. Then, add boiling water to make ml infusion. Preparation: Previously sliced drug barks or wood 5 parts is boiled with water or parts in a vessel of enameled iron or earthenware for a definite length of time 15 min.
To obtain highly concentrated decoction, boiling is continued until the liquid reduced to a certain volume. Allow to cool to about 40C, press the marc and mix the resulting liquid to the decoction. At the end of decoction time, decoction is strained through fine muslin or flannel according to the nature of marc.
Then, sufficient water is passed through the strainer to produce a definite volume. Also used in anemia, indigestion, gastrointestinal disorders, general fatigue. Comparison between infusion and decoction Item.
Chapter II. The Methods And Definitions Of Galenical Pharmacy