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E-mail: rb. Received Dec 17; Accepted May This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Phyllostomidae comprises the most diverse family of neotropical bats, its wide range of morphological features leading to uncertainty regarding phylogenetic relationships.
Seeing that cytogenetics is one of the fields capable of providing support for currently adopted classifications through the use of several markers, a comparative analysis between two Phyllostomidae species was undertaken in the present study, with a view to supplying datasets for the further establishment of Phyllostomidae evolutionary relationships.
Chromosomal data obtained for both species are in agreement with those previously described, except for X chromosome morphology in T. A comparison of G-banding permitted the identification of homeologies in nearly all the chromosomes. Furthermore, C-banding and Ag-NOR patterns were comparable to what has already been observed in the family.
Fluorochrome staining patterns for pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin CH regions, as well as for nucleolar organizing regions NORs , indicated heterogeneity regarding these sequences among Phyllostomidae species. Keywords: bats, chromosome banding, fluorochromes, NOR Introduction The family Phyllostomidae, which comprises the New World leaf-nosed bats, is considered the third largest of the order Chiroptera.
This family is the most diverse group among Neotropical bats, with approximately 56 genera and species Baker et al. Phyllostomidae bats exhibit wide variation in morphological features, and are adapted to a extensive range of ecological niches, with dietary specialization which includes fruit, nectar, pollen, insects, vertebrates and blood.
This great diversity has been problematic for systematics, and concurs to hindering efforts to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the family Wetterer et al. The subfamily Phyllostominae is one of the groups which has been questioned by researchers, but without consensus.
Several authors agree that this subfamily is not a monophyletic group, although only recently has a new proposal been made as to its subdivision. Baker et al. In this classification, members were distributed among five subfamilies: Macrotinae, Micronycterinae, Lonchorhininae, Phyllostominae and Glyphonycterinae. Lonchorhininae, which is comprised of a single genus Lonchorhina , diverged before the radiation of Phyllostominae and nectarivorous bats, appearing as a basal branch relative to Phyllostominae.
Cytogenetic studies constitute an important approach for understanding phylogenetic relationships among bats. By comparing banding patterns and the localization and constitution of different markers, it has been possible to characterize several taxa and develop hypotheses on evolutionary relationships, as well as models of chromosomal evolution Baker et al.
Thus, in this work, chromosomal features of Lonchorhina aurita Lonchorhininae and Trachops cirrhosus Phyllostominae were studied by conventional analysis, G- and C-banding, staining with silver nitrate and base-specific fluorochromes CMA3 and DAPI in order to establish mutual cytogenetic differences.
These data will be helpful in understanding the chromosome structure and evolution of the family Phyllostomidae, as well as systematic aspects and phylogenetic relationships among members. Materials and Methods Chromosome analyses were carried out on 12 specimens seven males and five females of Lonchorhina aurita Tomes, and eight specimens four males and four females of Trachops cirrhosus Spix, Metaphase chromosome preparations were obtained from bone-marrow cells according to conventional procedures.
Silver staining and G- and C-banding procedures were undertaken through routine cytogenetic techniques, according to Howell and Black , Seabright and Sumner , respectively. Photomicrographs were taken by means of a Leica DMLB photomicroscope for conventional, silver staining and fluorescence staining.
G- and C-banding were captured by a CytoVision image capture system. Results The karyotype of L. The X chromosome was medium-sized submetacentric and the Y minute.
In the T. The X and Y chromosomes were acrocentric. The G-banding pattern disclosed the precise identification of all chromosome pairs. Furthermore, in L.
Tomes's sword-nosed bat
Pale spear-nosed bat P. Jamaican flower bat P. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a now extinct synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. These roosts contain individuals in associations called colonies. Jamaican fig-eating bat A. Red fruit bat S.
Tomes's sword-nosed bat