Population genetics Abstract Juniperus thurifera is a key element of the forest communities in arid and semi-arid areas of the western Mediterranean. Previous genetic and morphological investigations suggested that Algerian populations are genetically more similar to European than to Moroccan populations and advocated their recognition at the variety rank. We aimed to investigate the spatial genetic structure in J. We also modelled species distributions since the Eemian to recognise the impact of past climatic changes on the current pattern of diversity and predict possible changes in species distribution in the future. Species-specific microsatellites were used in the analysis of 11 populations from Algeria, Morocco and Europe. We revealed the significant genetic distinctiveness of the Algerian populations from the Moroccan and European stands that may have important taxonomic and conservation implications.
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Source, Montes and Bertaudiere [T. Saplings in an oak woodland, Spain [R. A mature tree and its bark, Spain [R. A sapling, Spain [R. Linnaeus , p. Taxonomic notes Synonymy: J. Sabina thurifera L. Antoine J. Antoine var. Antoine Sabina pseudothurifera Antoine J. Murray Sabina villarsii Jord.
Reverchon neotype BM. Jarvis at BM but was unsuccessful. A neotype not in conflict with anything stated in the protologue has therefore been selected" Farjon Farjon reduces the two described varieties, gallica in France and africana in North Africa , to synonymy on the grounds that the described characters overlap with specimens of the type variety described by the respective authors.
Description Dioecious evergreen shrubs, or trees up to 20 m tall. Crown pyramidal in youth, later becoming broad, rounded, often irregular. Trunks single or multiple, often branching near the ground, up to cm dbh. Bark thin, dark brown, with age weathering gray-brown, becoming scaly, and exfoliating in strips.
Structural branches dense, spreading or ascending. Foliage branches spreading or drooping, branchlets Leaves light green, decussate, imbricate, decurrent, scale leaves on ultimate branchlets all appressed, on ultimate branchlets 1. Pollen cones terminal, solitary, subglobose, mm long, yellow-green maturing to light brown; microsporophylls Seed cones terminal, growing in two seasons, consisting of pairs of spreading but incurved bracts fusing to form a subglobose cone mm diam.
Seeds 1- per cone, irregular in size and shape in a single cone, x Juvenile leaves on seedlings and reappearing on mature plants, in whorls of 4 on lower stem, on branchlets decussate, acicular, mm long with a green adaxial midrib, acute-pungent Farjon In Spain it primarily occurs on calcareous soils, but in Morocco Atlas Mtns.
The climate is continental, semiarid, with cold winters Atlas Mts. Hardy to Zone 8 cold hardiness limit between See Montes and Bertaudiere for details, a map, and photos showing habitat. In the High Atlas Mountains of Algeria, it is the only tree species at the upper tree line about m elevation, with isolated specimens found above m. At the lowest altitudes, Quercus ilex is generally associated with J. In the Middle Atlas mountains, J. Conservation status: In Europe, the species is generally stable, but is vulnerable to habitat loss as woodlands change to forest after abandonment of traditional land use systems.
In the High Atlas of Morocco, heavy grazing and browsing pressures have caused damage to living trees and prevented regeneration Gauquelin et al. Like most junipers, the seeds are dispersed by animals, including birds and livestock; both are highly effective vectors in semiarid lands.
The foliage is eaten by sheep R. Clegg email In Spain Guadalajara it occurs with J. Big tree An individual 19 m tall with a girth due to its multistemmed form of 16 m, located in the Middle Atlas, near the "Col du Zad," about 50km N of Ifrane Nicolas Montes email Oldest Ongoing dendrochronological research Montes and Bertaudiere has not yet established precise ages, but the maximum is probably more than years Nicolas Montes email Dendrochronology Montes and Bertaudiere provide information on ongoing research.
Ethnobotany In France and Spain, J. The foliage served as fodder for donkeys and goats. These types of use are still prevalent in North Africa Farjon See also remarks in Montes and Bertaudiere Observations Montes and Bertaudiere provide clues on where to find native specimens. Remarks Citations Gauquelin, T. Largier eds. Les Dossiers Forestieres No.
This series of volumes, privately printed, provides some of the most engaging descriptions of conifers ever published. Although they only treat species cultivated in the U. Despite being over a century old, they are generally accurate, and are illustrated with some remarkable photographs and lithographs.
Juniperus oxycedrus, vernacularly called Cade, cade juniper, prickly juniper, prickly cedar, or sharp cedar, is a species of juniper, native across the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Portugal, north to southern France, east to westernmost Iran, and south to Lebanon and Israel, growing on a variety of rocky sites from sea level up to m elevation. The specific epithet oxycedrus means "sharp cedar" and this species may have been the original cedar or cedrus of the ancient Greeks. Juniperus excelsa, commonly called the Greek juniper, is a juniper found throughout the eastern Mediterranean, from northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria across Turkey to Syria and Lebanon, Jordan and the Caucasus mountains. Juniperus horizontalis is a low-growing shrubby juniper native to northern North America, throughout most of Canada from Yukon east to Newfoundland, and in the United States in Alaska, and locally from Montana east to Maine, reaching its furthest south in Wyoming and northern Illinois.