The elder of the two was Margaret, the principal subject of this memoir, born on the 11th of April, ; the younger, born on the 12th of September, , was the prince who succeeded Louis XII. Married when she was little more than eleven years old, Louise of Savoy was left a widow before she had completed her eighteenth year, and thenceforth devoted herself with exemplary assiduity to the care of her children, who repaid her solicitude by the warm affection they always felt for their mother and for each other. She was a woman of remarkable beauty and capacity, and her character and conduct were deserving, in many respects, of the eulogies which her daughter never wearied of lavishing upon them; but less partial writers have convicted her of criminal acts, which brought disasters upon her son and her country. In the first year of his reign, Francis I.
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Louise was considered one of the most brilliant feminine minds in France and she named their first-born, "Marguerite", after her own mother.
She had several half-siblings, from illegitimate relationships of her father, who were raised alongside Marguerite and her brother. Her father died when she was nearly four; her one-year-old brother became heir presumptive to the throne of France. Thanks to her mother, who was only nineteen when widowed, Marguerite was carefully tutored from her earliest childhood and given a classical education that included Latin. With this decree, Marguerite was forced to marry a generally kind, but practically-illiterate man for political expediency—"the radiant young princess of the violet-blue eyes She had been bartered to save the royal pride of Louis, by keeping the County of Armagnac in the family.
There were no offspring from this marriage. After the death of Queen Claude, she took in her two nieces Madeleine and Marguerite , for whom she would continue to care during her second marriage.
Approximately a year after the lead image in the information box that was painted by Jean Clouet, on 16 November , Marguerite gave birth to a daughter by Henry, the future Jeanne III of Navarre , who became the mother of the future Henry IV of France.
A Venetian ambassador of that time praised Marguerite as knowing all the secrets of diplomatic art, hence to be treated with deference and circumspection. During a critical period of the negotiations, Queen Marguerite rode horseback through wintry woods, twelve hours a day for many days, to meet a safe-conduct deadline, while writing her diplomatic letters at night.
Her only son, Jean, was born in Blois on 7 July , when Marguerite was thirty-eight, an age considered old by sixteenth century standards. The child died on Christmas Day the same year. Sorbonne theologians condemned the work as heresy. A monk said Marguerite should be sewn into a sack and thrown into the Seine.
Her brother forced the charges to be dropped, however, and obtained an apology from the Sorbonne. Her salon , known as the "New Parnassus", became famous internationally.
But in addition to all that, she was very kind, gentle, gracious, charitable, a great dispenser of alms and friendly to all. This poem is a first-person, mystical narrative of the soul as a yearning woman calling out to Christ as her father-brother-lover. Her work was passed to the royal court of England, suggesting that Marguerite had influence on the Protestant Reformation in England. Role in the Reformation[ edit ] Anne Boleyn had been a lady-in-waiting to Queen Claude during her years in France before returning to England.
A written letter by Anne Boleyn after she became queen exists in which Anne Boleyn makes strong expressions of affection to Marguerite. Although Marguerite espoused reform within the Catholic Church, she was not a Calvinist. She did, however, do her best to protect the reformers and dissuaded Francis I from intolerant measures as long as she could.
After her death, eight religious wars occurred in France, marked notably by the notorious St. Her influence radiated throughout France. Every free spirit looked upon her as protectoress and ideal Marguerite was the embodiment of charity. She would walk unescorted in the streets of Navarre , allowing any one to approach her and would listen at first hand to the sorrows of the people. Henri, her husband, King of Navarre, believed in what she was doing, even to the extent of setting up a public works system that became a model for France.
Together he and Marguerite financed the education of needy students. Our gratitude to you, Mother of our [French] Renaissance! Your hearth was that of our saints, your heart the nest of our freedom. The king maintained his residence there and Marguerite maintained a residence nearby.
Louise was considered one of the most brilliant feminine minds in France and she named their first-born, "Marguerite", after her own mother. She had several half-siblings, from illegitimate relationships of her father, who were raised alongside Marguerite and her brother. Her father died when she was nearly four; her one-year-old brother became heir presumptive to the throne of France. Thanks to her mother, who was only nineteen when widowed, Marguerite was carefully tutored from her earliest childhood and given a classical education that included Latin. With this decree, Marguerite was forced to marry a generally kind, but practically-illiterate man for political expediency—"the radiant young princess of the violet-blue eyes She had been bartered to save the royal pride of Louis, by keeping the County of Armagnac in the family.
Recipe for a Happy Life Heptameron Summary The Heptameron consists of 72 short stories or tales told by different narrators. In the book, the fictional narrators are also the audience in that each of the main characters takes turns telling stories and listening to the others stories. As such The Heptameron employs a narrative device common at the time, that of stories within stories. It has much in common with the Decameron after which it is directly modeled and other works such as The Canterbury Tales and even the Arabian Nights. In the Heptameron, a group of travelers have gone to the baths in the Pyrenees Mountains. A severe rainstorm and resulting flood washes away the roads and bridges and the travelers are stranded. After some misadventures with bandits, a man eating bear, and the drowning of many of their servants and horses, the group of well to do travelers settle in near The Abbey of Our Lady of Serrance, in the valley of Aspe.
A devout Christian , the lady suggests that they read the Bible. However, Hircan says that they are young enough to need other diversions as well. Parlamente suggests that those who want to write stories after the manner of Boccaccio , do so, sharing them with the others in the afternoon, after Scriptures are read in the morning. It will take 10 days to complete the bridge, and, each day, in a shady grove in a meadow, the writers will share 10 tales, telling a total of stories. The stories will be published, if the audience likes them, and be presented to the listeners as presents.
Marguerite de Navarre