Carswell, using their intelligence to undermine each Participatory design is an attitude about a other in pursuit of individual status, they force for change in the creation and man- are much more able to generate collective agement of environments for people. Its intelligence. Collective intelligence has strength lies in being a movement that cuts been suggested as being partly responsi- across traditional professional boundaries ble for favorable participatory design out- and cultures. Its roots lie in the ideals of a comes Fischer et al. The deliberative them.

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Carswell, using their intelligence to undermine each Participatory design is an attitude about a other in pursuit of individual status, they force for change in the creation and man- are much more able to generate collective agement of environments for people. Its intelligence. Collective intelligence has strength lies in being a movement that cuts been suggested as being partly responsi- across traditional professional boundaries ble for favorable participatory design out- and cultures.

Its roots lie in the ideals of a comes Fischer et al. The deliberative them. Increasingly complex decision- turn represents a renewed concern with making processes require a more informed the authenticity of democracy, which is en- citizenry that has considered the evidence gaged in by competent citizens Dryzek, on the issue, discussed potential decision To increase the effectiveness of our options and arrived at a mutually agreed democracy, Atlee advances the upon decision Abelson et al, Deliberation, states Atlee, industrial and information technology.

Re- is a form of dialogue with the intention of search findings suggest that positive out- producing decisions, policies, recommen- comes are associated with solutions being dations or collective action.

More recently, another factor sue, examining the facts, viewpoints and has been suggested as being partly re- consequences related to it. Unlike an open sponsible for favorable participatory design participatory forum, a CDC is an organized outcomes, which is described as collective group of people selected such that their intelligence Fischer et al. Atlee collective diversity reflects the diversity of describes collective intelligence CI the larger population from which they were as a shared insight that comes about drawn.

Unlike public hearings, which are through the process of group interaction, often aimed at airing views, citizen deliber- particularly where the outcome is more in- ative councils are small, usually between sightful and powerful ten to fifty people, and generate a specific product such as a recommendation, which than the sum of individual perspectives.

Individu- more influence on the design and introduc- al methods may differ with respect to par- tion of computer systems into the work- ticipant selection, the number of partici- place.

Several projects in Scandinavia set pants the type of input obtained or the out to find the most effective ways for number of meetings. Common to all, how- computer system designers to collaborate ever, is the deliberative component where with worker organizations to develop sys- participants are provided with information tems that most effectively promoted the about the issue being considered, encour- quality of work life. However, tory design emerged in the s civil PD practitioners share the view that every rights movement to describe a process, participant in a PD project is an expert in which engages end users, although volun- what they do, whose voice needs to be teer citizen participation continues to be heard; that design ideas arise in collabora- one of the key concepts in American socie- tion with participants from diverse back- ty.

Some historians support the notion that grounds; that PD practitioners prefer to Americans have always wanted to be part spend time with users in their environment of decisions affecting their lives. Par- and the right to make decisions on the ear- ticipatory design professionals share the ly American frontier was the shaping force position that group participation in deci- in grass roots democracy, i.

They right to participate Billington, Participation is not led to direct involvement of the public in only for the purposes of achieving agree- the definition of their physical environment ment. It is also to engage people in mean- and an increased sense of social respon- ingful and purposive adaptation and sibility constituted a new movement. Instead they fought against s in Norway when computer profes- urban redevelopment, advocated for the sionals and union leaders strove to enable rights of poor citizens, and developed workers to have more influence on the in- methods of citizen participation.

Federal troduction of computer systems in the programs of the s, such as the Com- workplace Winograd, ; Spinuzzi, munity Action Program and Model Cities, Computer professionals worked encouraged the participation of citizens in with members of the Iron and Metalwork- improvement programs. With these pro- ers Union to enable the workers to have grams, people outside the professions 2 were allowed to make decisions about ers communicate and organize across hi- planning and financing.

Citizens were giv- erarchical lines within the organization and en the right to participate in planning and with peers elsewhere. They recognize that implementation processes through grants workers are a prime source of innovation, and technical assistance Sanoff, Often, however, dressing emergent problems Sanoff, the term participation is modified with de- The way participation is defined also est in the study and application of partici- depends on the context in which it occurs.

Westergaard viewed partici- environmental issues, which are at its pation as collective efforts of those citizens heart. A range of participatory principles traditionally excluded from control to in- underpins participatory geographies, such crease their ability to manage resources as a focus on empowerment and collective and institutions. Brager, Specht, and Tor- action where participants learn from their czyner defined participation as a engagement in the process.

They believe means to educate citizens and to increase that participatory work should be proactive- their competence. It is a vehicle for influ- ly inclusive with practitioners actively at- encing decisions that affect the lives of citi- tempting to include and seek out people zens and an avenue for transferring politi- who are often ignored or do not take part in cal power. Participatory geographers, there- defines participation as a process fore, often seek to work in bottom-up ways whereby stakeholders influence and share with the goal of actively engaging and control over development decisions and benefiting groups outside academia so that resources which affect them.

Research is seen not only as a process CPSR advocates co-designing new oppor- of creating knowledge, but simultaneously tunities for exercising creativity; increasing as education and development of con- worker control over work content, meas- sciousness, and of mobilization for action.

It is thus an emergent process, cial sustainability of communities and plac- which takes shape as understanding in- es is that participation allows for communi- creases, where the subject of the research ties to express their needs and aspirations, originates in the community itself and the which subsequently impacts the policy- problem is defined, analyzed and solved in making processes Healey, Partici- the community Taylor, Particularly crucial in the conception of par- A more democratic participation can raise ticipatory design is the idea of democrati- awareness of the cultural and social quali- zation of decision-making within all local ties of localities at the policy-making stage and private organizations as a necessary and avoid conflicts that may emerge in pol- prerequisite for political democracy at the icy implementation later Rydin and Pen- national level.

Colfer et al. Key ingredients for achiev- the importance of local people in involve- ing the social sustainability of communities ment, decision-making, and sustainable include: management.

The overarching con- stakeholders and participants including re- cepts at the core of social sustainability in- searchers, experts, and policy makers. Korten international participatory development describes development as a pro- theory and practice over the last twenty cess by which the members of a society years Seitz, increase their personal and institutional capacities to manage resources to produce Evaluation: The aim of any evaluation is sustainable and equitable improvements in to identify where change has and has not their quality of life.

A good evaluation assess- tence also requires that appropriate proce- es what has been achieved against what dures be used to select the knowledge that was intended and explains why this hap- will be considered in the process Abelson pened in order to derive some lessons for et al.

Learning is at the core of any evaluation. Conclusion: The purposes of participation For community participation projects, eval- have been more modestly defined to in- uation is a learning process for everyone clude information exchange, resolving con- involved. It is an interactive and egalitarian flicts, and to supplement planning and de- process, which must value all contributions sign. Participation reduces the feeling of and develop a sense of empowerment.

With it, Evaluation is not just a measure of change residents are actively involved in the de- but can be a tool for change, and the velopment process; there will be a better- methods must fit with the purposes, which maintained physical environment, greater is about creating change through participa- public spirit, more user satisfaction and tion, working with people, rather than doing significant financial savings.

The main things for or to them. A guiding principle purposes of participation are Sanoff, therefore is to ensure that the methods : used do not undermine the work that has occurred. In order the validity of claims. It The competence goal deals more with the should encourage dialogue, debate and content of the process. A competent pro- collaboration. Thus, participation may be cess ensures that appropriate knowledge seen as direct public involvement in deci- and understanding of the issue is achieved sion-making processes where people through access to information and the in- share in social decisions that determine terpretation of the information.

Compe- the quality and direction of their lives. This 5 requires the provision of effective commu- ford: Oxford Brooks University. The BAG Basic assessment guide requires careful analysis. While it is critical for human well-being. Advocacy and pluralism in planning.

In the Dryzek, J. Deliberative democracy and be- last several decades, there have been nu- yond. London: Oxford University merous efforts to accumulate knowledge Press.

Scandinavian design: on participation well as the function that these techniques and skill in P. Adler and T. Winograd eds Usability: perform. Citizen surveys, review boards, Turning technologies into tools.

London: Oxford Universi- advisory boards, task forces, neighborhood ty Press. Beyond binary choices: integrating individ- cable TV, have all been used with varying ual and social creativity. Human-Computer Studies Since community participation is a complex con- Graessle L. Measuring change, making changes.

An approach to evaluation. London: cept, it requires considerable thought to London National Health Resource. Healey P. Institutionalist analysis, communica- tive planning, and shaping places, Journal of Planning Education And Research 19 2 References Korten, D. Getting to the 21st Century: Volun- Abelson, J. Deliberations about deliberative Kumarian Press.

Ideas for the evaluation of community Atlee, T. The Tao of democracy. Mathbor, G. Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books. Billington, R. PyGyWg Columbia University Press. Rydin Y. Public participation Bramley, G. What is social sustainability and how do our exist- problem and the potential of social capital, Local Envi- ing urban forms perform in nurturing it?

Paper presented ronment, 5 Community participation methods in College London. New York: Wiley. Colantonio, A. Social sustainability: An explorato- Sanoff, H. Origins of community design. Progres- ry analysis of its definition, assessment methods, metrics sive Planning Ox- 6 Sanoff, H.

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Books by Henry Sanoff

Something went wrong. Please try your request again later. Professor Sanoff taught courses related to community design, social architecture, design research, design methodology, and design programming. For 40 years his graduate architecture studios were organized as a community design center providing design assistance to community groups and public agencies.


Henry SANOFF-Multiples Design

Platos concepts of freedom of speech, assembly, voting, and equal representation have evolved through the years to form the basis upon which the United States was established. Some historians support the notion that Americans have always wanted to be part of decisions affecting their lives. Billington contends that freedom and the right to make decisions on the early American frontier was the shaping force in grass roots democracy, i. As many frontier villages grew in population it became increasingly difficult for every citizen to actively participate in all community decisions. To fill the void in the decision making process, people began to delegate their involvement to a representative, which grew into the system of selecting officials by public elections, and the increase of volunteer associations and organizations de Tocqueville, Although public participation can be approached and defined in many different ways, this discussion is concerned with participation aimed at issues involving community decision-making. Community consciousness in the s led to direct involvement of the public in the definition of their physical environment and an increased sense of social responsibility constituted a new movement.


Henry Sanoff

Setting up a new arts council or improving an existing requires a visioning process Setting up a new arts council or improving an existing requires a visioning process that offers community participants opportunities to make their arts concerns known, as well as planned actions to achieve desired outcomes. The effectiveness of an organization depends upon a relationship to its constituents, who may be actual members or the broader public. Consequently, a well-planned communications program delivers information translated into the language of the audience. Assessing community assets through workshops and surveys of arts activities provides the basis for identifying facility space requirements—and such requirements determine the suitability of existing facilities for use as an arts center. Arts groups sometimes embark on a building program without knowing where to begin and who should be involved.

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