Jacobs, R. Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn Rhizomes absent or present. Stolons present.
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Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. Harlan Because of the general similarity in appearance between the various giant types of Cynodon, there has been considerable confusion over the years in the taxonomic affiliation of many specimens.
It is suggested that all stargrasses identified as C. We have therefore chosen to treat these major species on a single Fact Sheet in an attempt to address the confusion. Epithets used in a particular publication should be viewed critically, since much of the available data actually relate to C. Synonyms 2. Cynodon dactylon var. Leptochloa plectostachyus K.
Gramineae subfamily: Chloridoideae tribe: Cynodonteae. Common names 1. Morphological description A largely robust, sometimes fine, stoloniferous non-rhizomatous , deep-rooted group of perennials. Stolons often woody, and culms to cm tall, and mm in diameter near the base. Inflorescence a digitate or sub-digitate panicle, comprising spreading, spike-like racemes cm long, in whorls. Details of differences can be seen in Table 1. Naturalised throughout the tropics and sub-tropics. Occurs in disturbed areas in grassland, cattle paddocks and road verges, on moist alluvium.
Larger types are suitable for cut-and-carry. Useful live mulch and ground cover for weed control and soil conservation. Ecology Soil requirements Grow on a wide range of soil types from sands to heavy clays, although best in moist, well-drained, lighter textured soils.
It is adapted to soils with pH 6. Moisture C. None tolerates prolonged flooding, but can withstand waterlogging for days. Very drought tolerant but produce little forage during periods of moisture stress. Temperature C. In Australia, var. Light All grow best in full sun or light shade, although some types, at least, seem adapted to moderate shade providing fertility is adequate. Reproductive development A more restricted flowering period than C.
Defoliation All are tolerant of heavy grazing although the finer types appear more grazing tolerant than the more robust types. Under continuous heavy grazing or regular cutting in infertile soils, stands tends to succumb and the sward is opened to invasion by broadleaf weeds and C.
If well fertilised, they grow vigorously, producing the best combination of yield and quality when grazed or cut every weeks, which generally means maintaining a stubble height of cm, and allowing the sward to reach cm.
More rapid rotation of grazing animals say every 1 or 2 weeks , can lead to higher liveweight gains, providing overall stocking rates and adequate stubble levels are maintained. Fire Plants recover quickly after fire, and can even benefit through spittlebug and disease control by fire.
Agronomy Guidelines for the establishment and management of sown pastures. The area should be free of C. Freshly harvested planting material is broadcast on clean cultivated soil and covered by discing cm deep and heavily rolled.
When placed in a moist, firm seedbed, nodes sprout in days, and a solid stand can be achieved in 3 months after planting under good conditions. Sprigs and newly established plants are susceptible to drought and should be kept moist.
Under normal management, little fertiliser is required for survival, but stands are unproductive. Compatibility with other species These are very vigorous grasses that, unmanaged, can overgrow associated legumes. However, they are mostly not very shade tolerant, and can be shaded out by taller grasses and trees. Pests and diseases None of these grasses is greatly affected by disease, particularly if managed to remain young and leafy. The major diseases are rust, caused by Puccinia graminis and P.
There are also records of leaf blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani during the rainy season, black choke on inflorescences and leaves caused by Ephelis sp.
Nematodes isolated from these grasses include the stubby root Trichodorus , spiral Helicotylenchus , stealth Hemicycliophora , ring Hemicriconemoides , stunt Tylenchorhynchus , awl Dolichodorus , and lance Hoplalaimus nematodes. Farmers need to be aware that build up of nematodes under stargrass can lead to severe consequences in subsequent nematode-susceptible vegetable and ornamental crops. Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda and spittlebug Prosapia bicinata are the major insect pests, along with strip grass looper caterpillar Mocis latipes.
Ability to spread Some types produce reasonable amounts of seed and have vigorous seedlings, so there is considerable potential for spread by seed. However, most produce little or no seed and can only spread vegetatively. Weed potential All have fibrous, resilient stolons that survive ploughing, stands actually being improved by cultivation.
These grasses can therefore become weeds in cropping systems, although they are not as serious as C. Feeding value Nutritive value Forage quality when harvested or grazed every weeks is about the same for most star grasses. Stargrass is most nutritious when grazed every weeks. Phosphorus levels in the DM of between 0. These are generally similar in 3. Digestibility of top growth killed by frost declines by percentage units after 1 week, and percentage unit after 4 weeks. Some varieties are not readily eaten at any stage.
Toxicity Both C. Levels of up to ppm HCN have been measured in C. These decline after about 4 weeks. However, confirmed cases of prussic acid poisoning are not common.
While reports of high levels of HCN in C. Production potential Dry matter Yields vary greatly with time of year, moisture availability, defoliation management, and nitrogen fertility.
In the subtropics, C. Evidence suggests that some types, at least of C. Although these grasses all appear similar, DNA comparison indicates strongest species similarities were between C. Seed production Some types of C. Most workers agree that C. Herbicide effects Broadleaf weeds can be controlled using a mixture of dicamba and 2,4-D. For harder-to-kill pasture weeds triclopyr may be effective. Cynodon spp. Strengths Rapid establishment from vegetative cuttings. Persistent when properly managed.
Some types make good cool season growth with adequate moisture and fertility. Palatable and high quality forage when harvested or grazed regularly. Good LWG per animal and per hectare. Hay cures rapidly under favourable conditions. Limitations Low productivity during dry periods.
Top growth killed by frost. Requires higher fertility than Paspalum notatum , Hemarthria altissima and Digitaria eriantha pangola. Forage quality drops rapidly after 5 weeks of regrowth and following heavy frost. Acceptability to cattle declines rapidly with time. Some types produce high HCN. Selected references Bogdan, A. Longman: London and New York. Taxon, 19, Hanna, W. Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst. Harlan, J. Rich Gramineae. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 36, Hodges, E.
Circular S Mislevy, P. Internet links.
Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. Harlan Because of the general similarity in appearance between the various giant types of Cynodon, there has been considerable confusion over the years in the taxonomic affiliation of many specimens. It is suggested that all stargrasses identified as C. We have therefore chosen to treat these major species on a single Fact Sheet in an attempt to address the confusion. Epithets used in a particular publication should be viewed critically, since much of the available data actually relate to C.
However, C. The two varieties can be distinguished based on the following information Cook et al. Prevention and Control Top of page Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. A combination of manual and chemical methods is recommended for the management of large infestations of C. In the case of smaller infestations, plants can be cut out and all stolons must be removed. Larger infestations can be controlled by mowing the foliage and the aboveground segments of the grass.