BIOINSTRUMENTATION JOHN G.WEBSTER PDF

About this title From one of the most widely known editors in biomedical engineering comes a new title describing measurement methods in medicine and biology. While many books on medical instrumentation cover only hospital instrumentation, this book also encompasses measurements in the growing fields of molecular biology, cellular biology, and tissue engineering. Each chapter includes homework problems and references for further study. Extensive laboratory instructions, examination and quiz questions, and PowerPoint slides of figures are contained on the web site.

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Table 1. Bioinstrumentation applies the fundamentals of measurement science to bio- medical instrumentation. It emphasizes common principles and unique problems associ- ated with making measurements in living systems.

A physiological variable originates from a molecular, cellular or systemic process whose nature may be described by a me- chanical, electrical, chemical, optical or other event. A variable must be carefully speci- fied before being measured. The sensor should be designed to minimize the disturbance to the measured variable and its environment, comply with the requirements of the living system, and maximize the signal-to-noise ratio, i.

The signal, typically after being converted into an electrical form, is then conditioned using linear and nonlinear signal processing, and delivered to an appropriate output device. Bioin- strumentation includes methods for obtaining invasive and noninvasive measurements from the human body, organs, cells and molecules; electronic instrumentation, principles of analog and digital signal processing, and typical output devices.

It includes measure- ment concepts such as accuracy, reproducibility, noise suppression, calibration methods, and safety requirements. Biomaterials is the application of engineering materials to the production of medical devices and diagnostic products. In the last decade, advances in biology, espe- cially at the molecular level, have lead to the design and development of new classes of materials derived from natural sources.

These include molecularly engineered materials, hybrid materials and devices, biomimetic or synthetic biological materials, and other bio- logically related materials. Biomaterials covers current and traditional applications for biologically and pharmacologically active materials as well as materials used in such applications as tissue and organ engineering, diagnostic products, and drug delivery.

Biomechanics covers the behavior of biological tissues and fluids to incorporate complexities ranging from nonlinear viscoelasticity to non-Newtonian flows. Biomechan- ics includes both biofluid mechanics and biosolid mechanics at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ-system levels.

Molecular and cellular biomechanics is integrated with the macroscopic behavior of tissues and organs. This is put into practice by the modeling of various biological systems. An example of biomechanics is ergonomics, wherein eve- ryday devices, such as chairs and desks, are designed to reduce stress and injury to the body.

Standard methods of signal analysis have been used for characterizing rather than for elucidating the mechanisms. Biosignals treats signals from a variety of sources; standard methods of signal analysis, including transform and statistical techniques and their relationships; methods of signal generation, fractal analysis methods for signals with different charac- teristics, methods for analyzing chaotic signals, and approaches to reviewing data to de- termine or distinguish among possible origins.

Biosystems, which uses modern biology, has given us the tools to identify and characterize molecules and cells, the fundamental building blocks of organ systems. Un- derstanding how molecules and cells function in tissues, organs and organ systems is the domain of biological systems analysis.

Whereas molecular biology has focused on reduc- tionism, biomedical engineering is in a unique position to move biology to the next fron- tier where synthesis will lead to an understanding of the function of complex systems.

Biosystems analysis integrates properties of biological systems with current tools of sys- tems analysis.

Biotransport phenomena covers transport processes from the organ to the sub- cellular level. Quantitative understanding of biological processes is based on the funda- mentals of the complementary processes of mass, momentum and energy transport. Transport of ions, substrates, proteins, viruses and cells is a central issue for the quantita- tive understanding of biological systems.

It builds an integrated picture of the convection, diffusion, permeation, and reaction kinetics in the circulation, through capillary beds, and through the tissues of the body. While using the fundamentals of transport phenomena for understanding membrane transport, cellular and tissue energetics, enzymatic regulation and metabolism, it also considers how data from microsensors, tissue samples or regional concentrations over time can be acquired, quantified and interpreted. Transport phenom- ena considers methods suitable for interpreting data from intact systems.

Cellular engineering develops and communicates quantitative biochemical and biophysical design principles that govern cell function. An engineering perspective inte- grates underlying molecular mechanisms.

Relevant topics are fundamental kinetics, me- chanics, and transport processes that use calculus, differential equations and cell biology. Models analyze cell functions, such as metabolism, signaling and regulation, biomolecu- lar uptake and secretion, proliferation, adhesion, migration, and differentiation character- izing molecular and cellular properties.

Techniques from modern biochemistry and mo- lecular biology alter these parameters in order to test model predictions and demonstrate how the underlying design principles can be applied to manipulate cell function. Clinical engineering deals with managing diagnostic and laboratory equipment in the hospital. Clinical engineers work with health care workers to determine equipment needs, search for optimal equipment, specify equipment, perform incoming inspection, train health care workers in proper operation, provide inventory of equipment, decide whether to perform maintenance in house or purchase vendor contracts, and perform safety inspections.

Rehabilitation engineering is a newer area of biomedical engineering. A reha- bilitation engineer works directly with patients such as disabled individuals to assist in achieving a better standard of life. The rehabilitation engineer modifies or designs new 1. A rehabilitation engineer could be involved with an individual requiring a prosthetic limb, by designing the limb to suit the individuals per- sonal needs.

Such a limb would be required of an individual who has lost a leg, but still desires to run on his or her own power. Each of these disciplines can be divided into several subspecialties. For exam- ple, medicine can be subdivided into anatomy, anesthesiology, biomolecular chemistry, biostatistics and medical informatics, family medicine, medical microbiology and immu- nology, medical physics, neurology, neurophysiology, obstetrics-gynecology, oncology, ophthalmology, pathology and laboratory science, pediatrics, physiology, preventive medicine, psychiatry, radiology, rehabilitation medicine, and surgery.

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